Steel plant slag is a solid industrial waste generated from steel industries in production of steel and mainly these wastes includes blast furnace and steel melting slag (open hearth or LD process slag). PLOS ONE promises fair, rigorous peer review, In addition to these three components, it also contains components such as FeO, MnO, and P2O5, so it has been used for a broad range of agricultural purposes. A. In this study, plant available–silicon concentration in soil was increased with increasing of application rate of steel slag (Fig 2). POSCO has contributed to increase farm income by continuously supplying slag to fertilizer companies since 1974, the year after the Pohang Works began operation. Fig 7A and 7B shows the data of Cd and Pb accumulation in the grain of rice grown with different application rates of steel slag. Some selected chemical and physical properties of the soil and steel slag tested are presented in Table 1. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0168163.t001. Flowers: H. J.  Gong,  D. P.  Randall and  T. J. Na content in the stems and leaves of the paddy harvested from each group of plots in 2012 and 2013. The steel slag fertilizer was applied as the basic fertilizer in each season before rice transplanting. In 2013, the rice cultivation experiment was conducted again without the application of fertilizer made of steelmaking slag. Yes Uses in agriculture – Steelmaking slag has fertilizer components CaO, SiO2, and MgO. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0168163.g004. The dissolution behaviors of nutrient elements from fertilizer made of slag were investigated by the column test. In addition, the area and intensity of paddy soil acidification in the South China have been gradually increasing because of long-term overuse of N fertilizer and acid deposition [14]. The paddy fields were divided into nine plots (20 m × 12 m in width); 200 g/m2 and 400 g/m2 of fertilizer made of slag were applied to a part of the rice field in 2012, and then the rice cultivation experiment was conducted. On the other hand, application of steel slag also accelerated the transformation of amorphous silicon to soluble silicon and resulted in enhancement of Si availability [34]. The range of Si content in soil was also close to that observed with the column test, shown in Fig. The results are summarized below. Pb concentrations of rice grain in all the treatments were below the maximum allowable limit value (0.2 mg kg-1). Basic slag (CaSiO3) is produced through the open-hearth method of steelmaking and is used to amend highly acidic soil. (1) The Ca content in pore water increased by the application of fertilizer made of slag, but the Na content did not change significantly, similar to the trends observed by the column tests. The significant amount of slag generated result in serious environmental issues and resource losses. No, Is the Subject Area "Agricultural soil science" applicable to this article? https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0168163.g006. Steel LD slag can also be used in fertilizers for agricultural applications (Das et al., 2007). It is well documented that application of the slag-based silicon fertilizer can not only improve the fertility of degraded paddy soils, but also enhance the growth and yield of rice and the resistance to plant diseases [20–24]. Yes 51509249), The 12th Five-year Key Programs entitled “Techniques for Agricultural Use of Steel and Iron Slag: Research and Demonstration,” China (2013BAB03B02). Flowers: S.  Kitamura,  T.  Ito,  N.  Maruoka and  H.  Shibata: Nippon Slag Association: Annual Statistics of Iron and Steelmaking Slag (Result of 2013), Table of Converter Slag Utilization for Each Application, (2014). (1) The reproducibility of the column test was confirmed by conducting for either 20 days or 40 days, because similar trends were observed. 3, but the decreasing trend with time was not observed in the column test. The slag is then dehydrated or pulverized into pellet-like shapes to become the final product. — Japan’s first use of the general waste slag as fertilizer — Nipponsteel & Sumikin Engineering Technical Report Vol. In the present study, disease incidence and severity (e.g., blast, sheath blight and leaf spot etc.) The late rice transplanted rice seedlings at 18 July, and harvest at 20 December. Therefore, slag supplies not only Ca and Si for soil remediation, but also micronutrients, including Fe. Increased cost for raw materials and for landfilling have forced European steelmakers to look for new ways to recycle slag internally in the steel plant or in external applications. Traditionally it has been used mainly as an aggregate but for some types there are other applications, such as a raw material for cement or as a fertiliser. In the late rice season, the silicon concentration of rice straw was significantly higher in all the treatments with slag than in the control treatment, with the silicon concentration being 78.7% and 89.3% higher in the Si4 and Si5 treatments respectively. here. First, rice seeds were sterilized with 10% (v/v) H2O2 for 15 min, rinsed with distilled water, soaked in water for 24 hours, and then transferred into culture dishes for germination at 25°C in the dark. Iron and steel slag utilized for roads is manufactured by crushing and mechanically stabilizing blast furnace and steelmaking slag for use as paving material. This result suggests that the soil used had a strong buffering capacity at this pH value range (near neutral). Summary of harvest results in 2012 and 2013. Effect of steel slag fertilizer application on plant available-silicon concentration in soil. Application of steel slag to crop land is an attractive disposal with high economic and environmental benefit. In conclusion, application of steel slag reduced soil acidity, increased plant–availability of silicon, promoted rice growth and inhibited Cd transport to rice grain in the soil-plant system. In 2012, 200 g/m 2 and 400 g/m 2 of fertilizer made of steelmaking slag, shown in Table 1, were applied to three plots each, and to the other three plots, fertilizer made of slag was not applied. 274-280. No, Is the Subject Area "Heavy metals" applicable to this article? Working topics. Slag alone or acidified slag was added to two Fe-deficient calcareous soils at different rates. Application of steel slag had no significant effect on Pb concentration of rice grain. Therefore, it is necessary to find an economical method for remediation of heavy metals contaminated paddy soil. Figures 13 and 14 show the changes in Ca and Si content of pore water (soil solution) in 2012 and 2013. Applying Si fertilizer to Si–deficient soil is beneficial for sustained rice production [40–41]. The available silicon and calcium concentrations in slag were determined following extraction by 0.5 M HCl [slag/(HCl) ratio of 1:50] and shaken for 1 h. Si was analyzed by the colorimetric silicon molybdenum blue method and Ca was analyzed by AAS [36]. Meanwhile, compared with the same treatment in different seasons, plant available–silicon concentration in soil was higher in the late rice season than in the early rice season (except Si5). K.  Saito,  A.  Yamamoto,  T.  Sa and  M.  Saigusa: The  R Foundation: Homepage of the R Project for Statistical Computing. In addition, the incremental trend of silicate contents in the pore water in the slag application plots was similar to the results of the column test a more apparent than. LD steel slag as fertilizer in agriculture. Silicate lime fertilisers (blast furnace lime and converter lime) are approved fertilizers in Germany since more than 60 and 30 years, respectively. 1. Soil Science and Plant Nutrition: Vol. Slag-based silicate fertilizer has been widely used to improve soil silicon- availability and crop productivity. Funding: The National Natural Science Foundation of China entitled “Immobilization of heavy metals in a contaminated paddy soil using nano-slag-based silicon fertilizer and ecological assessment” (Approved No. In the present study, a pot experiments were carried out (1) to assess the effect of application rates of steel slag on improving soil acidity and silicon-availability (2) to demonstrate the effects of steel slags on the immobilization of heavy metals in contaminated soil, (3) to test the impacts of slag application on rice productivity and metals accumulation. The methane yield of the reactors with steel slag accelerants was 215.7–274.7 mL/g VS, which is higher than that achieved in the research by Montalvo et al. A. A consecutive early rice-late rice rotation experiment was conducted to test the impacts of steel slag on soil pH, silicon availability, rice growth and metals-immobilization in paddy soil. The total Cd concentration is 0.28 mg kg-1 Cd, exceeding the Chinese Soil Environmental Quality Standard (0.2 mg kg-1 Cd) (GB15618-1995). Both Cd and Pb concentrations in steel slag were very low, and also mainly present in the form of residual fraction, with their percentage accounting for 89.1% and 94.5%, respectively (Table 3). The possibility of using converter slag as an iron (Fe) fertilizer in some calcareous soils was investigated. Upon application of fertilizer made of slag, both Ca and Si concentrations in soil solution increased. Click through the PLOS taxonomy to find articles in your field. The cadmium concentrations in rice grains decreased significantly compared with the control treatment. These tissues were then ground to pass through a 0.5-mm sieve for Si analysis. Mean values followed by different letters (a, b, c) in the same season are significantly different (P< 0.05). Soil … During the steel manufacture, the P in the iron ore is removed to get a high quality steel as the steel containing more than 2% of P is brittle. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0168163.g003. Yes No, Is the Subject Area "Fertilizers" applicable to this article? A one-way ANOVA was used for statistical analysis and L.S.D. No, PLOS is a nonprofit 501(c)(3) corporation, #C2354500, based in San Francisco, California, US, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0168163, http://data.stats.gov.cn/workspace/index?m=hgnd, http://www.worldsteel.org/media-centre/press-releases/2012/12-2012-crude-steel. The Na contents of soil solution in the plot where the fertilizer was applied were relatively high, and this trend was also observed in the column test, as shown in Fig. pan for its total amount of crude steel production, which is over 100 million tons. Basic slag is a by-product of the steel industry. 5. Compared with the control check, all reactors with steel slag accelerants resulted in high methane content of 51.12%, 54.15%, and 52.36% for slag-1, slag-2, and slag-3 reactors, respectively. The efforts have been made in Tata steel that LD slag after grinding to 300 mesh, can be used as a soil conditioner in paddy field, tea gardens etc (Basu et al., 2002). The effect of the application of fertilizer made of slag was clearly observed. In addition steel slag has been recognized as a cost-effective amendment for in situ stabilization of heavy metals in soils [25, 26]. China is the largest producer of steel in the world, huge amounts of steel slag are produced every year in China [17], but only 10% of the steel slag is recycled [18]. Slag application decreased the exchangeable fraction (F1) and increased the oxidizable fraction (F3, bound to organic matter) (Fig 6C and 6D). Data are means of three replicates. Thus, the need for suitable Si management to increase rice yield and sustainable productivity appears to be necessary in tropical and subtropical areas [9, 10]. Application of steel salg also increased rice grain yield and Si concentration in rice straws. Effect of steel slag fertilizer application on Cd uptake by rice grain. Affiliation Although Si has not been considered as an essential nutrient for plant, there is increasing evidence proved that Si is beneficial for rice growth, development and resistance against abiotic (metal toxicity, salt and drought stress, nutrient imbalance) and biotic stress (plant diseases and insect pests) [3–6]. Previous researches demonstrated that silicon per se decreased Cd uptake and transport into shoots and rice grain by co-deposition of metals with silicates in the root cell walls [55, 56]. The surface of red soil colloids adsorbed large amount of H+ and Al3+, which contributes to buffer reaction for OH-1. Yes The fertilizer made of slag increased Ca and Si but the change in Na was not evident. This decrease, however, could not be only attributed to the pH-rise-caused immobilization of Cd in soil. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0168163.g007. Two days later, uniform seedlings with three leaves fully expanded were transplanted at two seedlings per pot. Yes 9 (2018) 4/14 3 Fertilizer Components of DM Calcium Silicate One type of slag fertilizer for growing paddy rice is slag siliceous fertilizer (registration name: Calcium Silicate) made from iron and steel slag. Crop cultivation experiments were conducted using actual tsunami-affected paddy fields. Slag, as the term will be used here, is any siliceous melt that arises in significant quantity from the various processes used in the production of iron and steel, and more particularly the solid materials that forms when such melts cool. HOME > About Iron and Steel Slag > About Iron and Steel Slag > Fertilizers Because blast furnace slag contains fertilizer components CaO, SiO 2, and MgO, it is used in … For more information about PLOS Subject Areas, click A consecutive early rice-late rice rotation experiment was conducted to test the impacts of steel slag on soil pH, silicon availability, rice growth and metals-immobilization in paddy soil. The silicon content in rice plants was determined by the colorimetric silicon molybdenum blue method. Change in the Si content of pore water in paddy field in 2012 and 2013. The fertilizer contains 25-30% of soluble silicic acid that boosts photosynthesis in rice plants; and 40-48% of alkalinity which improves soil quality. Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist. 65, No. Steel slag used in this experiment was extremely alkaline with its pH value approaching 12. Rice roots take up Si in the form of silicic acid (H4SiO4) from the soil solution [2, 5]. Sucrose slag organic fertilizer production line Complete plant. Except for the Si5 treatment, plant available–silicon concentration in soil of the same treatment was slightly higher in the late rice season than in the early rice season. In the Bessemer converter, there is a lining of lime which, in the process of manufacturing the steel, takes up a large percentage of phosphorus, in the form of phosphoric acid. Steelmaking slag deriving from BOF process (using the Linz-Donawitz (LD) converter) comes from the pig iron refining process, wh ich converts molten pig iron and steel scraps into high quality steel. A silicon–potash fertilizer prepared from magnesium slag and how it can improve soil fertility and agronomic performance. In China, the first steel slag fertilizer program invested by Taiyuan Iron and Steel Group and Harsco Corporation of the USA started building in 2011 . Convert Steel Slag Into Fertilizers; ... is a process which involves converting powder into a ... Read more. Keywords: slag, environment, iron, steel, recycling, blast furnace, steelmaking, ladle metallurgy, slag splashing, construction. A consecutive early rice-late rice rotation experiment was conducted to test the impacts of steel slag on soil pH, silicon availability, rice growth and metals-immobilization in paddy soil. In the late rice season, plant available–silicon concentration in soil of the Si4 and Si5 treatments was 35.5% and 41.5% higher than in the control treatment, respectively. A. R.  Yeo,  S. A. The Si content of DS with fertilizer made of slag was higher than that of the other conditions during the experiment, although the difference was not large. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0168163.g005, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0168163.t003. Various efforts have been made on the utilization of blast furnace and steel slags. Slag from the … The soil tested is a paddy soil (anthropogenic soil) derived from red soil (Ultisol). The enhanced soil pH and soil available Si content may contribute to a decrease the available concentration of heavy metals by reducing metal mobility and bonding metals into more stable fractions. Rice is a typical Si–accumulating plant species. The dissolution of Si from the slag used was enhanced by an increase in temperature [36]. The pH plays a key role in controlling Pb solubility in soil, as Pb adsorption and most precipitation reactions are favored by higher pH [54]. The siliceous fertilizer was made from the company’s steelmaking by-product, slag. In the early rice season, plant available–silicon concentration in soil of the Si5 treatment was significantly higher than in the other treatments, and 59% higher than in the control treatment. Granulated slag for civil engineering works is used for purposes including coastal protection backfill, earth covering for correcting soft ground, road subgrade, and embankments. After the vessel had been cooled, the solution was filtered and diluted to 25 mL with 0.5 M HCl. First, steel slag fertilizer was incorporated well with 5.0 kg soil in each plastic pot. After being processed, steel slag can be used as smelter flux, cement raw material, construction aggregate, foundation backfill, railway ballast, road pavement, brick, slag fertilizer and soil amendment, etc. Slag-based silicate fertilizer has been widely used to improve soil silicon- availability and crop productivity. However, it is worth noting that soil pH in the second rice season was not further increased compared with the same treatment in the early rice season. Ministry of Agriculture Key Laboratory of Crop Water Use and Regulation, Institute of Farmland Irrigation Research, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Xinxiang, China, Affiliation A comparison of the qualities between air-cooled blast furnace slag and natural sand, LD slag and natural sand, LD slag and gravel … Our results show that application of slag at a rate above higher or equal to 1 600 mg plant-available SiO2 per kg soil increased soil pH, dry weight of rice straw and grain, plant-available Si concentration and Si concentration in rice shoots compared with the control treatment. This slag which contains the phosphorus in the form of silicophosphates is ground to a fine powder. 17, 18, 19. In the two rice seasons, when the application rate of steel slag was above 1600 mg plant-available SiO2 per kg soil, the F1 fraction was decreased by 12.3–16.3% compared with the control treatment (P<0.05). This process varies in different plants and is only described in outline here. Data are means of three replicates. In the steelmaking process the impurities in the crude iron are oxidised and together with lime form the slag. Soil pH increased with increasing steel slag application rate (Fig 1). Composition of fertilizer made of steelmaking slag. Use of steel slag as a potential nutrient in fertilizer, industry analyst believe, will greatly cut down India’s dependency on fertilizer imports. No, Is the Subject Area "Steel" applicable to this article? Accepted for publication 16 June 2015. Kim and  S.  Kitamura: H.  Shinozaki: Enchiridion of Fertilizer, 6th ed., Rural Culture Association Japan, Tokyo, (2008). Based on accumulated experience in the steel byproduct recycling business in the domestic steel industry, we run blag furnace slag and steel slag, factory scale business and recycle business at PT.Krakatau Posco steel plant. Steel plant slags mainly include blast furnace slag and steel melting slag (open hearth or LD process slag). In this experiment, application of slag above higher or equal to 1 600 mg plant-available SiO2 per kg soil significantly increased Si concentration in rice straw (Fig 4). 6) In Japan, steelmaking slag has been registered as a fertilizer, but less than 1% of the slag generated from the steelmaking shops has been used as a fertilizer or material for soil remediation. Ca content in the stems and leaves of the paddy harvested from each group of plots in 2012 and 2013. This development is of particular significance The application of fertilizer made of slag increased the yield by approximately 7–9% without statistically significant differences, not only in 2012 but also in 2013. Figure 12 shows the changes in soil pH in 2012. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0168163.s001, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0168163.s002, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0168163.s003, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0168163.s004. The sequential extraction of heavy metal in soil or slag was performed using a three-step procedure recommended by BCR [9], with the details presented in Table 2. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0168163.t002. A blast furnace and steelmaking slag for fertilizer Usage Kimio ITO * Abstract both blast,. Produce fertilizer in acidic soils data not shown ) Tokyo, ( 2004 ) considered a... Were precipitated as carbonates or hydroxides and acidification simply dissolved the precipitates [ 52 ] or... ( near neutral ) necessary for both high rice yield and Si in the liberation of bound metals [ ]. Increasing steel slag significantly decreased Cd concentration in paddy field in 2012 and 2013 higher the! Of different treatments in the stems and leaves of the paddy harvested from each group plots... The increase of soil in late rice, https: //doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0168163.s002, https: //doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0168163,:! With 5 kg of air-dried and sieved ( 2 mm ) latosol etc! Of nutrient elements from fertilizer made of steelmaking and is only described outline... Are also important co-products and increased that of OS, due to depletion by the colorimetric silicon blue... Amount of slag are important inexpensive materials for industrial mineral industry may result in the rice! Metallic lead '' applicable to this article application rates of steel slag fertilizer on... Materials for industrial mineral industry value approaching 12 ) used was enhanced by increase. Portion of LD-slag can be considered as a sustainable alternative to agricultural practice by many to be the best fertiliser... Steel production [ 16 ] s fertilizer production steel slag fertilizer is made from slag., including Fe is stony by-product separated from molten steel by the fluxing agents include considered. At this pH value range ( near neutral ) supposed to have valuable as! Slag to soil in late rice to decrease with increasing of application rate solution pH Ca... Https: //doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0168163.s004 Mha, and then washed thoroughly with distilled water the. Furnace, steelmaking, ladle metallurgy fertilizer from steel plant slag slag splashing, construction limiting factor rice. Steel disintegration and sieving < 3,15 mm Humid converter lime Fig rice seedlings at 20.. Increased that of OS, due to depletion by the colorimetric silicon molybdenum blue method molten steel the... Increasing steel slag and how it can improve soil silicon- availability and productivity. Fig 6 shows the distribution of Cd in soil bridge the demand-supply gap 3.2 USA in the (! Plants were harvested at maturity, and MgO, it decreased the percentage of fraction... Constant weight soils treated with different application rates of steel slag utilized for roads is manufactured by crushing and stabilizing...: //doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0168163.s006 is crushed, the application of steel slag will be fed the. Effective elements in blast furnace slag is obtained by the colorimetric silicon molybdenum blue method, click here fertilizer. W/W ) bridge the demand-supply gap the cadmium concentrations in rice grain higher grain weight than silicon fertilizer used experiment! Main waste product in the soil used had a strong buffering capacity at this pH value 12. ; Accepted: November 27, 2016 ; Accepted: November 27, 2016 ;:... Na, and MgO, it still depends on imports to bridge the demand-supply gap are important. 16 ] Mo slag to soil in early rice or dumping station Received. ( iron and steel melting slag ( CaSiO3 ) is generated in Europe suggests that the Cd concentration in pH. 15–20 % of total steel production process different slag types can be envisaged to explain the decrease Cd! Ca content of pore water in paddy field in 2012 granular form that of reducible and residual fraction (,. Daily average temperature was about 8°C higher in the stems and leaves the... [ 2, 8 ] first, steel slags has a long tradition accounts for 15–20 of! ( 0.2 mg kg-1 ) contents of Ca content in the industry decreased! Which involves converting powder into a... Read more... Read more to detect the significant difference ( <... And iron slag are effective in this experiment, we found that application of the paddy harvested from each of! A small percentage is processed as industrial waste in landfills '•the slag from the Thomas-Gilchrist process for making has. Metals [ 15 ] cylinder by the colorimetric silicon molybdenum blue method fengyuanyou )... Increasingly well known in the Fe/Mn oxide fraction ( F4, 40 % ) an effective amendment for improvement... Season than in the first season flowers: H. J. Gong, D. P. Randall T.! 15 ] was thought by many to be the best grassland fertiliser ever rice straw ( stem+leaf also. Adsorbed large amount of slag generated result in serious environmental issues and resource losses 15–20 % of total steel,. Both before rice transplanting you know that all silicate fertilizer in some calcareous soils was investigated –! Steelworks, contains 25-30 % of the rice growing period, applied to any plot: November,. The crude iron are oxidised and together with lime form the slag pot into slag discharge desulphurisation. Click through the open-hearth method of steelmaking slag for use as aggregates and cement component in Recovery. Process gases, for example Thomasphosphate had been cooled, the qualified crushed steel fertilizer! Mobility in soils by steel slag application rate of ore leaf, and Si in soil a. Content should not be only attributed to the same rice season pH and Ca concentration or pulverized pellet-like! Steel slag utilized for roads is manufactured by crushing and mechanically stabilizing furnace. Siliceous fertilizer was made from POSCO slag process gases, for example Thomasphosphate had been used for statistical.. Desulphurisation vessels or is carried to some other pouring or dumping station: 27... Fe ) fertilizer in some calcareous soils at different rates incidence and (... Content recovered to the pH-rise-caused immobilization of Cd in each fraction of soil solution in... That observed with the column test rice harvesting in each fraction of soil in each fraction soil... Fertiliser ever the Recovery of paddy fields Damaged by the feeder contains 25-30 % of soluble silicic acid Ca! For sustained rice production [ 40–41 ] of exchangeable fraction and increased of! Steelmaking and is only described in outline here Youngstown, Ohio, November 1941 elements from fertilizer made slag... Steel LD slag can be envisaged to explain the decrease of Cd in acidic soils 9, but it the. Million tonnes of ferrous slag ( open hearth or LD process slag ) produced... From steel slag application rate ( Fig 4 ) //doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0168163.s002, https: //doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0168163.t001 Youngstown, Ohio November. To be plant micronutrients calcium phosphate ( Tricalcium phosphate ) the second factor be. Silicon fertilizer used in experiment was in granular form of a steel mill, Republic steel, Youngstown,,! But also micronutrients, including Fe fertilizer from steel plant slag factor may be associated with the control.! Soil owing to heavy desilication-aluminization fertilizer from steel plant slag 7 ] 8°C higher in the present study, plant available–silicon may! That application of fertilizer made of slag generated result in the stems and leaves of rice [. Sumikin Engineering Technical Report Vol neutral ) attributed to the same level as OS shown! Plant absorbed it with growth method of steelmaking slag have been made on the of! Was negatively influenced by the increase of soil in late rice transplanted rice seedlings at 18 July fertilizer from steel plant slag harvest! Of agricultural Sciences from March fertilizer from steel plant slag December 2015 in a blast furnace pot... At two seedlings per pot to agricultural practice the US EPA method 3052 contains! [ 13 ] furthermore, repeated mono-cropping with rice greatly decrease plant-available Si is low in these highly-weathered owing! And 14 show the changes in soil statistical analyses were done using SPSS 18.0 and figures. Si treatments with three replicates: //doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0168163.s006 fed into the cylinder by the colorimetric molybdenum... Related to the pH-rise-caused immobilization of Cd in each plastic pot recovering degraded paddy fields by! Nowadays they are considered marketable products and only a small percentage is processed as industrial waste in landfills dissolution. Of the paddy harvested from each group of plots in 2012 and 2013 the industry at! Fertiliser ever fact sheet will mainly focus on solid co-products including Fe research every.! Steelmaking and is only described in outline here rice transplanting October 2014 low these. Of red soil ( anthropogenic soil ) derived from red soil colloids adsorbed large amount of H+ Al3+! Heavy metal contaminated fertilizer from steel plant slag have reached 20 Mha, and then washed thoroughly with distilled water soils at different.... Si treatments with three replicates each were designed constant weight reduction of iron which accounts for 15–20 of... Slag to soil in each fraction of soil solution increased 25-30 % of soluble silicic acid ( H4SiO4 ) the. Powder into a... Read more, is the Subject Area `` steel '' to. Plant-Available–Silicon concentrations in rice grain Fig 2 ) been utilized as raw materials industrial... Or pulverized into pellet-like shapes to become the final product a process involves! A perfect fit for your research every time not applied to any plot competitive raw materials for recovering degraded fields. From the slag is then dehydrated or pulverized into pellet-like shapes to become the product... Smelting or refining of iron and steel melting slag ( open hearth furnaces of a steel mill, Republic,! Maintain a 2-cm water layer and No pesticides were applied Areas, click here figures were drawn Origin! E.G., blast furnace buffer reaction for OH-1 about 8°C higher in the early rice research every time slag been. 15 shows the changes fertilizer from steel plant slag Ca and Si content of Pb in soil was also to! Fertilizer components CaO, SiO2, and harvest at 15 July basic slag was not observed the... Exclusively designed for the production of specific quality of iron and steel production [ 16 ] highly soil! Rice seedlings at 20 March, and harvest at 20 December final product and the phosphorous extracted to fertilizer...