b) More cathodic removal Each electrical spark produces sufficient heat to melt a portion of the workpiece and usually, some of the tooling materials also. Interfacial debonding between fiber carbon and SiC matrix, pit, and recast layer form on the machined surface. b) 100 – 200 µm Some small-hole drilling EDMs are able to drill through 100 mm of soft or hardened steel in less than 10 seconds, averaging 50% to 80% wear rate. The process is also referred as electrochemical spark machining (ECSM) process. Electro-Chemical Machining (ECM) has the highest metal removal rate of about 200-300 mm 3 /s 3. a) True here is complete set of 1000+ Multiple Choice Questions and Answers, Prev - Advanced Machining Questions and Answers – EDM-Mechanism of Material Removal – 1, Next - Advanced Machining Questions and Answers – EDM-Machining System – 1, Advanced Machining Questions and Answers – EDM-Mechanism of Material Removal – 1, Machine Design Questions and Answers – Design of Chain Drive, Manufacturing Engineering / Processes II Questions and Answers, Manufacturing Engineering / Processes I Questions and Answers, Machine Tools & Machining Questions and Answers, Advanced Machining Processes Questions and Answers, Advanced Machining Questions and Answers – EDM-Process Control, Automation, Environmental Impact, Advanced Machining Questions and Answers – EDM-Heat Affected Zone (HAZ), Advanced Machining Questions and Answers – EDM-Applications – 2, Advanced Machining Questions and Answers – EDM-Surface Integrity, Advanced Machining Questions and Answers – Non Traditional Machining, Advanced Machining Questions and Answers – Electro Chemical Machining-Introduction and Principle of electrolysis, Advanced Machining Questions and Answers – EDM-Machining System – 1, Advanced Machining Questions and Answers – Electro Discharge Machining-Introduction, Advanced Machining Questions and Answers – Electrochemical Buffing-Introduction, Material Removal, Advanced Machining Questions and Answers – CHM – Process Parameters and Material removal, Advanced Machining Questions and Answers – Electrochemical Superfinishing-Introduction, Material Removal, Process accuracy, Advanced Machining Questions and Answers – WJM – Process Parameters and Material removal, Advanced Machining Questions and Answers – AJM – Material Removal Rate and Process parameters, Advanced Machining Questions and Answers – LBM-Material Removal, Advanced Machining Questions and Answers – Electronbeam Machining-Introduction, Equipment and Material removal, Advanced Machining Questions and Answers – Ion Beam Machining-Introduction, Material Removal Rate. The tool and workpiece must be electrically conductive and a small gap is maintained in between them. Jameson, E. C. (2001). Upon establishing the voltage, a strong magnetic field is established between the tool and workpiece (ignition phase). Participate in the Sanfoundry Certification contest to get free Certificate of Merit. They can be with typical dimensions ranging from the nanoscale (in micro-EDM operations) to some hundreds of micrometers in roughing conditions. Electrical Discharge Machining on Material Removal Rate and Surface Integrity To cite this article: H. R. Tonday and A. M. Tigga 2016 IOP Conf. Open gap voltages contribute to how much amount of material removal? This paper highlights the important results of the investigations on Electrochemical Discharge Machining (ECDM) conducted by the author and his coresearchers. a) Melt and evaporate b) Corrode and break c) Mechanical erosion takes place d) None of the mentioned 4. Electrical discharge machining, or EDM, is a non-traditional method in which material is removed from a workpiece using thermal energy. Two Russian scientists, B. R. Lazarenko and N. I. Lazarenko, were tasked in 1943 to investigate ways of preventing the erosion of tungsten electrical contacts due to sparking. As a result, material is removed from the electrodes. In this conclusion, there are following major factors are achieved during machining operations: Sinker EDM, also called ram EDM, cavity type EDM or volume EDM, consists of an electrode and workpiece submerged in an insulating liquid such as, more typically,[28] oil or, less frequently, other dielectric fluids. Electrical discharge machining (EDM), also known as spark machining, spark eroding, die sinking, wire burning or wire erosion, is a metal fabrication process whereby a desired shape is obtained by using electrical discharges (sparks). Electrical Discharge Machining EDM is the thermal erosion process in which metal is removed by a series of recurring electrical discharges between a cutting tool acting as an electrode and a conductive workpiece, in the presence of a dielectric fluid. The size of the craters is a function of the technological parameters set for the specific job at hand. However, caution should be exerted in considering such a statement because it is an idealized model of the process, introduced to describe the fundamental ideas underlying the process. a series of non-stationary electrical discharge which remove material from a workpiece [15,16]. What happens when the electron current predominates in the discharge? S R Nipanikar (2012). Electrical discharge machining 1. Reproducing sharp corners on the workpiece is difficult due to electrode wear. The upper guide can control axis movements in the GCode standard, x–y–u–v–i–j–k–l–. The other reason is the relatively low cost of materials for the production of a profile tool for EDM. The reason that the cutting width is greater than the width of the wire is because sparking occurs from the sides of the wire to the work piece, causing erosion. The wire-cut process uses water as its dielectric fluid, controlling its resistivity and other electrical properties with filters and PID controlled de-ionizer units. All these models hinge on a number of assumptions from such disparate research areas as submarine explosions, discharges in gases, and failure of transformers, so it is not surprising that alternative models have been proposed more recently in the literature trying to explain the EDM process. [9], Commercial wire EDM capability and use has advanced substantially during recent decades. In this case, the correspondent EDM process is also called wire EDM. 10,000 oscillations per … b) 50 % Several manufacturers produce EDM machines for the specific purpose of removing broken cutting tools and fasteners from work pieces. EDM is a non-mechanical thermal shaping process with which material is removed by spatially and temporally separated electrical discharges between a workpiece electrode and a tool electrode. a) Electrons Off time is the period of time between sparks. In the field of manufacturing additional attention is on the optimization of the method by dropping the number of Electrode. Electrical discharge machining (EDM) is a popular nonconventional machining process, which is capable of machining materials regardless of their hardness and strength. In Electro Discharge Machining (EDM), melting is the main process for metal removal. [16], A further strategy consists in using a set of electrodes with different sizes and shapes during the same EDM operation. The earliest numerical controlled (NC) machines were conversions of punched-tape vertical milling machines. material removal rate. After the explosion is over, how is the debris carried away? b) Sparks Fast hole drilling EDM was designed for producing fast, accurate, small, and deep holes. The vibrating frequency used for the tool in Ultrasonic machining is of the order of a. 1. [2][3][4][5], Simultaneously but independently, an American team, Harold Stark, Victor Harding, and Jack Beaver, developed an EDM machine for removing broken drills and taps from aluminium castings. The EDM process is most widely used by the mold-making, tool, and die industries, but is becoming a common method of making prototype and production parts, especially in the aerospace, automobile and electronics industries in which production quantities are relatively low. There are also stand-alone small hole drilling EDM machines with an x–y axis also known as a super drill or hole popper that can machine blind or through holes. [7], The wire-cut type of machine arose in the 1960s for making tools (dies) from hardened steel. Each pulse can be controlled in shape, for instance, quasi-rectangular. On most machines, the upper guide can also move independently in the z–u–v axis, giving rise to the ability to cut tapered and transitioning shapes (circle on the bottom, square at the top for example). Electrical Discharge Machining is a non-conventional manufacturing process with absent mechanical contact between tool and workpiece, making it an ideal approach for machining cavities with high aspect ratio (slenderness) on workpieces of relative high hardness materials. This led them to invent an EDM machine used for working difficult-to-machine materials such as tungsten. Electric Discharge Machining (EDM) has metal removal rate of about 10-20 mm 3 /s. Ultimately, a description of this process in a suitable way for the specific purpose at hand is what makes the EDM area such a rich field for further investigation and research.[15]. Although not directly affecting the machining of the part, the off time allows the flushing of dielectric fluid through a nozzle to clean out the eroded debris. Electro Discharge Machine and how it functions and what is needed to make it function Electro Discharge Machining (EDM) is a process, where we use the electrical energy to produce electrical waves and thermal energy to mould any alloy into a desired shape/size. Electro-Chemical Machining (ECM) is the generic term for a variety of electro-chemical processes. Electrical discharge machining (EDM), also known as spark machining, spark eroding, die sinking, wire burning or wire erosion, is a metal fabrication process whereby a desired shape is obtained by using electrical discharges (sparks). SME. View Answer, 5. Because other sorts of generators may also be used by different machine builders, the parameters that may actually be set on a particular machine will depend on the generator manufacturer. It resulted in three scholarly papers: the first presenting a thermal model of material removal on the cathode,[22] the second presenting a thermal model for the erosion occurring on the anode[23] and the third introducing a model describing the plasma channel formed during the passage of the discharge current through the dielectric liquid. Many of the industrial processes, including material removal operation for shape generation on the surface of material, exploit the assistance of ultrasonic vibrations. This erosion of the tool-electrode is also referred to as wear. Electric discharge machining (Spare corrosion/corrosion) P_atm = P_air + P_v 1.03 Ohm = 0.622 + 0.4 P( < 0.4) RLC circuit in EDM is working like fly wheel mechanical system i.e. The guides, usually CNC-controlled, move in the x–y plane. In Electrical discharge machining; a potential difference is applied across the tool and w/p in pulse form. Electro-Discharge Machining (EDM) is machining with sparks. Experimental investigation is carried out with 800 μm diameter tungsten electrode with two varying parameters rotational speed and gap voltage. A brief history and evolution of the process is reported and the materials' development, properties and applications are briefly described. In sinker EDM, a graphite, copper tungsten, or pure copper electrode is machined into the desired (negative) shape and fed into the workpiece on the end of a vertical ram. [20] These authors conducted their research in the field of μ-EDM, but the same approach can be used in any EDM operation. Sanfoundry Global Education & Learning Series – Advanced Machining. … These models give the most authoritative support for the claim that EDM is a thermal process, removing material from the two electrodes because of melting or vaporization, along with pressure dynamics established in the spark-gap by the collapsing of the plasma channel. This removes (erodes) very tiny pieces of material from the workpiece at a controlled rate. Which components mentioned below are affected due to arcs? In Electro discharge machining, materials with low melting point have _____ type of material removal rate. This EDM drilling type is used largely in the aerospace industry, producing cooling holes into aero blades and other components. 1. As the electrode approaches the workpiece, dielectric breakdown occurs in the fluid, forming a plasma channel,[15][22][23][24] and a small spark jumps. Electro-Discharge Machining (EDM) is one thermal energy based process where material is removed by localized melting and vaporization. The tool and workpiece is immersed in a dielectric medium (kerosene or deionized water). Wire Electrical Discharge Machining (WEDM) is a contemporary approach of material removal which is conceived from the concept of Electrical Discharge Machining process. For badges these flats may be further shaped to a curved surface by another die. The scientific problem of the physical impossibility of superhard ceramic materials machining (as the exception is the diamond grinding method) is considered because of their nearly zero conductivity since the electrical conductivity of ceramics, as for all solids, depends on the concentration of charge carriers, their magnitude, and mobility. d) None of the mentioned EDM does not make direct contact between the electrode and the work piece where it can eliminate mechanical stresses, chatter and vibration problems during machining [1]. View Answer, 7. There is a strong need of the development of a new inexpensive way of ceramic nanocomposites machining.[33][34]. This is also known as electro-discharge erosion. In RC circuits, however, little control is expected over the time duration of the discharge, which is likely to depend on the actual spark-gap conditions (size and pollution) at the moment of the discharge. by a non-conventional material-removal process, electro-discharge machining method (EDM). EDM is one of the most important non-conventional machining processes that is used for complex machining of many different classes of electrically conductive materials, regardless of their physical and metallurgical properties [8]. For instance, the removal of the debris from the inter-electrode volume is likely to be always partial. Answer: a Explanation: In Electro discharge machining, electric pulses generated have an impact on the material removal. It is similar in concept to electrical discharge machining (EDM) in that a high current is passed between an electrode and the part, through an electrolytic material removal process having a negatively charged electrode , a conductive fluid (electrolyte), and a conductive workpiece ; however, in ECM there is no tool wear. 1 Electrical Discharge Machining (EDM) GOPINATH.G MECHANICAL 2. This is the reason why it is considered non-traditional contrary to, for example, the processing with cutting tools. The amplitude of each pulse constitutes the open circuit voltage. (It should be noted that Langenhorst did point out that you can use wire EDM to cut shims by stacking the stock, sandwiching it between two pieces of quarter-inch steel, and cutting off a stack.) The mechanism of spark generation has been understood … Wire EDM is a special form of Electro discharge machining which contains _____ electrode. This allows the wire-cut EDM to be programmed to cut very intricate and delicate shapes. This is often referred to as multiple electrode strategy, and is most common when the tool electrode replicates in negative the wanted shape and is advanced towards the blank along a single direction, usually the vertical direction (i.e. The presence of these small craters on the tool results in the gradual erosion of the electrode. Further models of what occurs during electric discharge machining in terms of heat transfer were developed in the late eighties and early nineties. This page was last edited on 3 January 2021, at 17:07. After a current flow, the voltage between the electrodes is restored to what it was before the breakdown, so that a new liquid dielectric breakdown can occur to repeat the cycle. c) Work piece & Tool The problem of wear to graphite electrodes is being addressed. b) False Wire electrical discharge machining (WEDM) technology has been widely used in production, aerospace/aircraft, medical and virtually all areas of conductive material machining. [10] Feed rates have increased[10] and surface finish can be finely controlled. Much like processes such as laser cutting, EDM does not need mechanical force in the removal process. c) 200 – 500 µm In this way, a large number of current discharges (colloquially also called sparks) happen, each contributing to the removal of material from both tool and workpiece, where small craters are formed. The material is removed from a workpiece, without any mechanical force on the workpiece using an electrical current that passes between an electrode and a workpiece, which is separated by a dielectric liquid. c) Electrons & Positive ions Machining of extremely hard material to very close tolerances. 9. Electrical discharge Machining b. Electrochemical grinding c. Electrochemical Machining d. Ultrasonic Machining (Ans:c) 29. The inter-electrode distance, often also referred to as spark-gap, is the end result of the control algorithms of the specific machine used. The reverse is true for a shorter on time. It was first observed in 1770 by Joseph Priestley. b) Tool A separate EDM head specifically for small hole drilling is mounted on a wire-cut machine and allows large hardened plates to have finished parts eroded from them as needed and without pre-drilling. However, for short pulses (discharge duration <5 μs), melting does not account for the results as shown by the experiments reported. Stark, Harding, and Beaver's machines were able to produce 60 sparks per second. It is also used to drill holes in industrial gas turbine blades, in molds and dies, and in bearings. However, the versatility of EDM has been recognized by the DIY maker community and custom designed wire EDM machines have been rising in popularity, of which several examples can be seen on YouTube. State whether the following statement is true or false regarding EDM. Proceedings of the ASME 2014 International Manufacturing Science and Engineering Conference collocated with the JSME 2014 International Conference on Materials and Processing and the 42nd North American Manufacturing Research Conference. This paper investigates the material removal rate (MRR) in electro discharge micromachining (micro-EDM) of zirconia. The tool electrode is given appropriate shape in accordance with the feature to be produced. The finished object may be further refined by hard (glass) or soft (paint) enameling, or electroplated with pure gold or nickel. Flushing is an important factor in determining the maximum feed rate for a given material thickness. Micro-electro-discharge machining (PEDM) is a powerful bulk micromachining technique, as it is applicable to any type of electrical conducto r, including all kinds of metals and alloys as well as doped semiconductors. This type of EDM is usually performed submerged in an oil-based dielectric. c) Old dielectric The high-temperature, very hard, single crystal alloys employed in these blades makes conventional machining of these holes with high aspect ratio extremely difficult, if not impossible. The flushing action can be inadequate to restore the insulating properties of the dielectric so that the current always happens in the point of the inter-electrode volume (this is referred to as arcing), with a consequent unwanted change of shape (damage) of the tool-electrode and workpiece. Also, applications of this process to shape polycrystalline diamond tools have been reported. Modern controllers monitor the characteristics of the arcs and can alter parameters in microseconds to compensate. The second approach is the less expensive and may have a high level of technological adaptation to the conditions of real machine-building production, and is capable of producing positive results on a large scale. a) 2000 to 3000 C b) 4000 to 6000 C c) 8000 to 12000 C d) 15000 to 20000 C 5. For short pulses, metal does not get enough time to get adequately heated and almost no melting takes place. The typical part geometry is a complex 3D shape,[28] often with small or odd shaped angles. Material removal rate occurs at the spot where the electric field is strongest. Sabyrov N(1), Jahan MP(2), Bilal A(3), Perveen A(4). View Answer, 10. The water flushes the cut debris away from the cutting zone. c) Unevaporated layer Closed loop manufacturing can improve the accuracy and reduce the tool costs. Therefore, delicate sections and weak materials can be machined without perceivable distortion. The erosive effect of electrical discharges was first noted in 1770 by English physicist Joseph Priestley. Next to the cost, commercial machines require a lot of floor space and industrial 3-phase mains power. Machines that could optically follow lines on a master drawing were developed by David H. Dulebohn's group in the 1960s at Andrew Engineering Company[8] for milling and grinding machines. The first commercially available NC machine built as a wire-cut EDM machine was manufactured in the USSR in 1967. What are the values of temperature that are obtained while machining using EDM? Potential fire hazard associated with use of combustible oil based dielectrics. Very small work pieces can be machined where conventional cutting tools may damage the part from excess cutting tool pressure. In this application, the process is termed "metal disintegration machining" or MDM. Sci. Insufficient debris removal can cause repeated strikes in the same location which can lead to a short circuit. Answer: 1.Good, better, 2.Superior, 3.Worse, 4.No burr, 5.200 500 μm, 6. Electrically non-conductive materials can be machined only with specific set-up of the process. [21] Van Dijck presented a thermal model together with a computational simulation to explain the phenomena between the electrodes during electric discharge machining. If machining takes place after heat treatment, dimensional accuracy will not be affected by heat treat distortion.[31]. EDM drills bore holes with a long brass or copper tube electrode that rotates in a chuck with a constant flow of distilled or deionized water flowing through the electrode as a flushing agent and dielectric. Holes of 0.3 mm to 6.1 mm can be achieved in this drilling operation. Innovative technology in the EDM is unceasingly progressing to make this procedure further appropriate for the Machining. Small hole drilling EDM is used in a variety of applications. Gas flow through these small holes allows the engines to use higher temperatures than otherwise possible. However, if you’re looking for a machining process that’s accurate, precise and stress-free—at … Incremental increase in material removal rate was observed after deep cryogenic treatment due to increase in thermal and electrical conductivity of the material. Electrochemical Machining (ECM): Introduction, Diagram, Parts, Working, Advantages, Disadvantages, Applications [PDF] Electrochemical Machining process, the combination of electrical energy and chemical energy makes the removal of material from the surface of a work-piece. the voltage between the electrodes when the dielectric is not yet broken) can be identified as steady state voltage of the RC circuit. Electrical Discharge Machining. The authors' simulations showed how they might explain EDM better than a thermal model (melting or evaporation), especially for small discharge energies, which are typically used in μ-EDM and in finishing operations. The process is used in aerospace engineering and the automotive, construction, medical equipment, microsystem and power supply industries. A framework to define and measure the electrical parameters during an EDM operation directly on inter-electrode volume with an oscilloscope external to the machine has been recently proposed by Ferri et al. a) 20 % The details of the generators and control systems on their machines are not always easily available to their user. Pipe or container internal contours and internal corners down to R .001". Hole Drilling Electro Discharge Micro Machining (HD-EDMM), one of the Hybrid Machining Processes (HMPs) combining the features of Electro Discharge Micro Machining (EDMM)) and conventional drilling process is used for machining electrically conducting materials. view the full answer In particular, the time between two consecutive pulses and the duration of each pulse can be set. View Answer, 12. and electro discharge machining (EDM). In Electro discharge machining, materials with low melting point have _____ type of material removal rate. McCarthy, Willard J. and McGeough, Joseph A. Koelsch, James (October 2009). The corresponding process is often also referred to as EDM grinding. Intense heat is generated by means of electric sparks. Wire EDM is a special form of Electro discharge machining which contains _____ electrode. Electrical Discharge Machining (EDM) is a non-traditional machining process. In any case, the severity of the wear is strictly dependent on the technological parameters used in the operation (for instance: polarity, maximum current, open circuit voltage). b) 500 and 500,000 Ultrasonic Machining (USM) has metal removal rate of about 5-10 mm 3 /s. How is material removed in Electro discharge machining? In particular, the release of an EDM arc generator in 2018, which was designed specifically for easy integration into custom EDM machines, signaled this change. The electrode tubes operate like the wire in wire-cut EDM machines, having a spark gap and wear rate. 2 Sometimes it is referred to as spark machining, spark eroding, burning, die sinking or wire erosion Its a manufacturing process whereby a desired shape is obtained using electrical discharges (sparks). Also, not all of the current between the dielectric is of the ideal type described above: the spark-gap can be short-circuited by the debris. Electrical Discharge Machining is also called or known as Spark machining, spark eroding, burning, die sinking, wire burning or wire erosion. Ultrasonic Vibration Assisted Electro-Discharge Machining (EDM)-An Overview. The high frequency discharges cause melting and vaporization of material on the surface of both electrodes. [20] This explains an increased current research effort in related experimental techniques.[15]. A form tool is made negative electrode, while the conductive workpiece is made positive electrode. Brass electrodes are easier to machine but are not recommended for wire-cut operations due to eroded brass particles causing "brass on brass" wire breakage, therefore copper is recommended. Spools of wire are long — an 8 kg spool of 0.25 mm wire is just over 19 kilometers in length. a) 1 and 10,000 10. One possibility is that of continuously replacing the tool-electrode during a machining operation. a) 10% In one approach, a digital generator, controllable within milliseconds, reverses polarity as electro-erosion takes place. Which of the following are main components of EDM? EDM process involves a controlled erosion of electrically conductive materials by the initiation of rapid and repetitive spark discharges between the tool and workpiece separated by a small gap. a) Open circuit pulses This set of Advanced Machining Processes Multiple Choice Questions & Answers (MCQs) focuses on “EDM-Mechanism of Material Removal – 2”. 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Sanfoundry Global Education & Learning series – advanced machining, electric pulses generated affect the material is removed by melting!